Hello, in this post we will learn about Internet of Things.
We know what is internet but what is this Internet of things?
When we connect our computers, mobile phones or tablets to internet, we are able to connect to other computers, printers and other machines worldwide. It helps us to do shopping, banking transactions, listen to music etc. online.
Now the next step which everyone thought of was how about connecting other things we see around us to internet? Like my car? Watch? Light? TV? Machines? Once my car is connected to internet we can track its fuel meter, speed level, and also track the location of the car. I can control the light and all electrical appliances from my mobile.
Internet of Things
Taking everyday things, embedding them with electronics, software, sensors and then connecting them to internet and enabling them to collect and exchange data without human intervention is called as the Internet of Things (IoT)
Example of IOT Sprinkler System
Like for example here a sensor detects the moisture in the soil and automatically sends an alert to command centre which automatically turns on the Sprinkler through a remote switch.
History of IOT
- The term “The Internet of Things” (IoT) was coined by Kevin Ashton in a presentation to Proctor & Gamble in 1999.
- However even before that after the internet was discovered, in 1982, Carnegie Mellon researchers connected a vending machine to Internet to remotely check for cold sodas.
- In 1990 the first toaster was operated over the net.
- In 2000 LG introduced first smart fridge.
- In 2004 smart watch was introduced and in 2007 smart iphone and wearable Fitbit were released.
- In 2009 Google started testing self-driven cars.
- In 2011 Smart TV was introduced.
- In 2013 Google Lens is released followed by Echo in 2014 which causes a surge in smart home market.
- IOT continues to grow dramatically with Tesla coming out with Auto Pilot in 2015, IOT continue to proliferate with cheaper devices and sensors
History of IOT
How does IOT work?
There are four main components based on which an internet of things ecosystem works on, devices or Sensors, Connectivity, Data Processing and User Interface. Lets look at each one of them one by one.
Components Of IOT
- It is a device that measures physical input from its environment and converts it into data that can be interpreted by a computer.
- There are various types of sensors available now, For e.g. sensing motion, temperature, pressure, light, sound etc.
- This sensor is typically integrated with a microprocessor based embedded system which can collate the data and connect to internet.
- Several Communication Protocols and Technology used in IOT.
- Depending upon Range, Power Usage, Cost, Data Rate etc. right one is used. E.g mobile, Bluetooth, WI-FI, LoraWAN, etc.
- All the collected data is sent via internet to a cloud infrastructure.
3. Data Processing
- In the processing stage, a computer transforms the raw data into information.
- The transformation is carried out by using different data manipulation techniques.
- This process can be just aggregating from multiple devices like AC or Light. Or it can be complex like extracting car number plates from video feed of speeding cars.
- It could be classifying the data or do real time analytics and identify patterns for human analysis.
4. User Interface
- The information processed is made available to the end-user in some way, like an app which can trigger alarm or send them notification through email or text message.
- It might provide the user with actual live feed or show trends etc.
- The application could also provide an interface to send instructions back as well, like resetting the temperature or releasing water to the plants based upon moisture reading etc.
Advantages of IOT
Applications of IOT
IoT solutions are widely used in numerous companies across industries.
- In the field of health care we have bio sensors and wearable devices which are used to monitor heart rate, blood pressure and automatically alert the doctors.
- In the field of agriculture, IOT can help in crop monitoring using drones. Moisture and soil sensors help in conserve water and maintain soil balance.
- To make our houses and buildings SMART, IOT is used to centrally manage Light, Camera surveillance, Sound detection, SMARTswitches and locks aid in for security. This helps in better manage the overall resources with considerably less manpower.
- In the field of education, Smart ID cards automatically takes in attendance while student is entering or leaving the school or school bus and send alerts to parents. A smart board allows teachers to display varied content and even surf the internet. The notes and HW on the board is automatically mailed to parents.
- IOT is used in retail for Smart Shelves which have digital price labelling and generating automatic notifications if shelves are lighter. Digital signage helps retail companies provide personalized and interactive shopping experience
- IOT is used in industries to maintain SMART supply chain leading to better inventory management. Industrial automation helps to increase productive efficiency and flexibility
Applications of IOT
Another application of IOT is Smart City
India’s SMART City Mission is to promote sustainable and inclusive cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions.
India’s SMART city mission included 100 cities and the success of its implementation will ripple down to many more cities.
- Some of the mission objectives include SMART Governance by introducing Centralized command centre for integrating disaster, traffic, crime, water, sanitation management etc. All Government services, information have been provided app based online access.
- It includes implementation of SMART Grid for Assured electricity supply by introducing SMART meters, appliances and renewable sources of energy.
- In field of Education, classrooms have been setup with SMART boards and Mobile Learning is introduced.
- Government has invested in SMART Health Centres with e-Doctor launch and Digitization of Health care records.
- SMART WATER Solutions are being implemented to ensure adequate water supply by integrating Google maps, sensors to monitor leakages, ground water level etc.
It also includes SMART Transportation, which includes integrated traffic signal control and camera network across the city.
India’s SMART City Mission
So to sum it up, IoT is trying to revolutionize the world. It is creating a giant network where all the devices are connected to each other. This is driving the automation to a next level where devices will communicate with each other and make decisions on their own making human life easier.